Litvínov (Czech pronunciation: [ˈlɪtviːnof]; German: Leutensdorf) is a town in Most District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 22,000 inhabitants. It is known as an industrial centre.
Litvínov is made up of 12 town parts and villages:
- Dolní Litvínov
- Horní Litvínov
- Horní Ves
The first written mention is from 1352 under the name Lutwinow. The word is made up of two Old High German words, liut – "people" and wini – „friend“. Originally the town consisted of two settlements – Horní Litvínov and Dolní Litvínov with forts.
In 1715, count Jan Josef Valdštejn founded a large cloth factory, one of the first in the Czech lands.
Litvínov was promoted to a town on 5 October 1852. In the 19th century, the industrialization of Litvínov deepened. Many new factories were established. Toys and wooden goods were made here, cotton was processed. The mining of lignite, which persists to this day, began, and after a new part of the railway was put into operation in 1870, other coal mines were opened. In a short time, a total of 19 mines were built. Employment opportunities attracted many new residents.
As a result of the global economic crisis in the 1930s, the largely industrial Litvínov was also severely affected. Production was limited in factories or was completely stopped, and the mines were also affected.
In 1939, a large oil refinery was founded south of the town.
In addition to buses, trams also provide public transport. The town operates a transport company together with the neighbouring city of Most.
Lítvínov is a traditional centre of ice hockey. Local club HC Litvínov is a stable part of the top national league (Extraliga) for more than 50 years. Many famous ice hockey players and coaches are connected with HC Litvínov, including Olympic gold medalists Ivan Hlinka, Vladimír Růžička, Jiří Šlégr, Robert Reichel and Martin Ručinský.
Church of Saint Michael is the oldest and most important state-protected monument of Litvínov. It was built in 1685–1694 in the early-Baroque style. The church has been renovated many times, for the first time in 1763. During the major renovation, which took place between 1887 and 1902, the interior was significantly beautified.
Waldstein's Castle (also called Litvínov Castle) serves today social and cultural purposes. It was rebuilt into the form of today's Baroque chateau between 1732 and 1743 by the architect František Maxmilián Kaňka. After the abolition of the castle garden, an English-style castle park with an area of 8 ha was established in 1878. From the end of the 19th century, the castle was used for economic purposes, and since 1964 a museum has been established here.
Osada, local part of Horní Litvínov, is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument zone. It includes a uniform and high-quality urban area with apartment buildings built by the occupation authorities during the World War II for employees of the chemical factory in Záluží.
- Květoslav Minařík (1908–1974), yogi and mystic
- Milan Šťovíček (born 1958), politician and mayor of Litvínov in 2006–2009 and 2010–2014
- Josef Beránek (born 1969), ice hockey player and coach
- Robert Reichel (born 1971), ice hockey player
- Eva Herzigová (born 1973), model
- Iva Frühlingová (born 1982), singer and model
- Zuzana Tvarůžková (born 1983), TV presenter
- Jakub Petružálek (born 1985), ice hockey player
Twin towns – sister cities
- ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2022". Czech Statistical Office. 2022-04-29.
- ^ a b c d "Historie města" (in Czech). Město Litvínov. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
- ^ Lutterer, Ivan. Původ zeměpisných jmen: etymologický slovník 1000 vlastních jmen, zemí, měst a přírodních objektů z celého světa (in Czech). Mladá Fronta. OCLC 2987123.
- ^ a b "Refinery Litvínov". Unipetrol Orlen. Retrieved 2022-05-24.
- ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Most" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 3–4.
- ^ "Population Census 2021: Population by sex". Public Database. Czech Statistical Office. 2021-03-27.
- ^ "Home" (in Czech). Dopravní podnik měst Mostu a Litvínova, a.s. Retrieved 2022-05-24.
- ^ "Kostel sv. Michaela archanděla" (in Czech). Město Litvínov. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
- ^ "Zámek Valdštejnů" (in Czech). Město Litvínov. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
- ^ "Litvínov – Osada – městská památková zóna" (in Czech). National Heritage Institute. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
- ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Litvínov. Retrieved 2020-08-16.
- Official website
- Brief history of Litvínov (in Czech)